Based on Ed Kolbe's review for Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food and Biological Engineering. Revised by Janet Webster & Judy Mullen, Oregon State University Libraries

Latest revision: September 2003

Ed Kolbe and Janet Webster (Oregon State University) assembled this collection as background for a review article. It includes material describing technology as well as analytical models. The review appears in the Encyclopedia of Agricultural, Food and Biological Engineering (Dekker 2003).

For more complete citations including abstracts, look at the web version

  1. Abdalla, H. and Singh, R. P. Simulation of thawing of foods using finite element method. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 1985; 7(4):273-286.
  2. Balaban, M.; Henderson, T.; Teixeira, A., and Otwell, W. S. Ohmic thawing of shrimp blocks. Yano, T.; Matsuno, R., and Nakamura, K., eds. Developments in Food Engineering. London: Blackie Academic and Professional; 1994; pp. 307-309.
  3. Bengtsson, N. (Swedish Institute for Food Preservation Research, Goteborg, Sweden). Electronic defrosting of meat and fish at 35 MHz and 2,450 MHz: a laboratory comparison. 5th International Congress on Electro-Heat; Wiesbaden. 1963: No. 414. 1-5. v. Presentation No. 414).
  4. Burgess, G. H. O.; Hewitt, M. R., and Jason, A. C. A review of current methods of thawing fish and future prospects. Annual Meeting of The Institute of Refrigeration; London. 1975Advance proof of a paper presented at the annual meeting.
  5. Calvelo, A. Recent studies on meat freezing. Lawrie, R., ed. Developments in Meat Science. Applied Science Publication; 1981; pp. 125-158 (chapter 5).
  6. Carver, J. H. Vacuum cooling and thawing fishery products. Marine Fisheries Review. 1975; 37(7):15-21.
  7. Chamchong, M. and Datta, A. K. Thawing of foods in a microwave oven, I. Effect of power levels and power cycling. Journal of Microwave Power and Electromagnetic Energy. 1999; 34(1):9-21.
  8. Charm, S. E.; Brand, D. H., and Baker, D. W. A simple method for estimating freezing and thawing times of cylinders and slabs. ASHRAE Journal. 1972; (November 1972):39-45.
  9. Chevalier, D.; LeBail, A.; Chourot, J. M., and Chantreau, P. High pressure thawing of fish (whiting): influence of the process parameters on drip losses. Lebensmittel-Wissenshaft Und Technologie. 1999; 32:25-31.
  10. Cleland, A. C. Thawing time prediciton. Food Refrigeration Processes: Analysis, Design and Simulation. London: Elsevier Applied Science; 1990; p. Chapter 7.
  11. Cleland, D. J. Prediction of freezing and thawing times for foods to different final product centre temperatures. Proceedings of the IIR Meeting; Brisbane, Australia. 1988: 33-39.
  12. Cleland, D. J.; Cleland, A. C., and Earle, R. L. Prediction of freezing and thawing times for multi-dimensional shapes by simple formulae, Part 1: regular shapes. International Journal of Refrigeration. 1987a; 10 (May):156-164.
  13. Cleland, D. J.; Cleland, A. C.; Earle, R. L., and Byrne, S. J. Experimental data for freezing and thawing of multi-dimensional objects. International Journal of Refrigeration. 1987c; 10(January):22-31.
  14. ---. Prediction of freezing and thawing times for multi-dimensional shapes by numerical methods. International Journal of Refrigeration. 1987d; 10(January):32-39.
  15. ---. Prediction of thawing times for foods of simple shape. International Journal of Refrigeration. 1986; 9(July):220-228.
  16. Cleland, D. J.; Cleland, R. L., and Earle, R. L. Prediction of freezing and thawing times for multi-dimensional shapes by simple formulae. Part 2: irregular shapes. International Journal of Refrigeration. 1987b; 10(July):234-240.
  17. Davis, P. Vacuum chilling and thawing of fishery products. Australian Fisheries. 1975; (November):28 only.
  18. DeAlwis, A. A. and Fryer, P. J. The use of direct resistance heating in the food industry. Journal of Food Engineering. 1990; 11:3-27.
  19. Denys, S.; Van Loey, A. M.; Hendricks, M. E., and Tobback, P. P. Modeling heat transfer during high-pressure freezing and thawing. Biotechnology Progress. 1997; 13(4):416-423.
  20. Fikiin, K. A. Ice content prediction methods during food freezing: a survey of the eastern european literature. Journal of Food Engineering. 1998; 38(3):331-339.
  21. Franke, K. A new approach for the numerical calculation of freezing and thawing processes of foods using a modified fictitious heat flow method. Journal of Food Engineering. 2000; 44(1):23-29.
  22. Gekas, V.; Chronakis, I. S.; Escada, C., and Sjoholm, I. Measurement of the heat transfer coefficient in a thawing tunnel. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 1998; 21(4):271-278.
  23. Goral, D. and Kluza, F. Comparison of models for predicting thawing times of food. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 1996; 5/46(2):103-108.
  24. Harvey, R. A. and Topliss, A. P. T. Thawing rate of fish blocks in water. Annual Report. Fishing Industry Research Institute (South Africa). 1982; 36(1982/01-12):41-42.
  25. Hayakawa, K.; Scott, K. R., and Succar, J. Theoretical and semitheoretical methods for estimating freezing or thawing time. Transactions of the ASHRAE. 1985; 91(Part 2B):371-384.
  26. Ibanez, E.; Foin, A.; Cornillon, P., and Reid, D. S. Study of different thawing methods for frozen fruits and vegetables. 1996 IFT Annual Meeting: Book of Abstracts; New Orleans, LA. Chicago, IL: Institute of Food Technologists; 1996: 33. ISBN: ISSN 1082-1236.
  27. Ilicali, C. and Ozbek, E. Methods for the thawing time prediction of ellipses. Lebensmittel Wissenshaft Und Technologie. 1997; 30(6):624-626.
  28. International Institute of Refrigeration. Thawing and tempering. International Institute of Refrigeration. Recommendations for the processing and handling of frozen foods. 3rd ed. Paris: Institut International du Froid; 1986; pp. 206-224.
  29. Methods of Thawing. International Institute of Refrigeration and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Draft code of practice for frozen fish. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; 1969; pp. 57,59,61,63,65,67.
  30. James, S. J. and Bailey, C. The theory and practice of food thawing. Zeuthen, P. et al, editor. Thermal Processing and Quality of Foods. London: Elsevier; 1984; pp. 566-578.
  31. Jason, A. C.Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Selection of thawing methods. Fish Handling and Preservation. Proceedings of a Meeting on Fish Technology. Scheveningen. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; 1965: 191-201.
  32. ---. Thawing frozen fish. Aberdeen, Scotland: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Torry Research Station; 1974. (Torry Advisory Note.
  33. Jiang, S. T.; Ho, M. L., and Lee, T. C. Optimization of the freezing conditions on mackerel and amberfish for manufacturing minced fish. Journal of Food Science. 1985; 50:727-732.
  34. Jimenez, S. M.; Pirovani, M. E.; Salsi, M. S.; Tiburzi, M. C., and Snyder, O. P. The effect of different thawing methods on the growth of bacteria in chicken. Dairy, Food, and Environmental Sanitation. 2000; 20(9):678-683.
  35. Thawing of frozen fish. Joint FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission and Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Recommended international code of practice for frozen fish. 2 ed. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization; 1984; pp. 45-48 (section 5.5).
  36. Jul, M. Thawing. Jul, Mogens. The quality of frozen foods. London; San Diego: Academic Press; 1984; pp. 261-270.
  37. Kissam, A. D.; Nelson, R. W.; Ngao, R., and Hunter, P. Water thawing of fish using low frequency acoustics. Journal of Food Science. 1981; 47(1):71-75.
  38. Knorr, D.; Schlueter, O., and Heinz, V. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure on phase transitions of foods. Food Technology. 1998; 52(9):42-45.
  39. Kristensen, J., inventor. A method and system for defrosting frozen packed products. Denmark, Paul Klinge Produktion DK 89-4419 (19890907). 1991.
  40. Kunis, J.; Richter, R., and Radespiel, E. Effect of rates of freezing and thawing on the quality of prerigor frozen beef. Proceedings of the International Institute of RefrigerationDresden; 1990: 721-730.
  41. Lin, C. S.; Hung, C., and Park, C. M. Quality and microbial safety for shrimp thawed using a constant temperature thawing chamber. 2000 IFT Annual Meeting; Dallas, TX. Institute of Food Technologists; 2000: 51A-1. ISBN:.
  42. Lind, I. Mathematical modelling of the thawing process. Journal of Food Engineering. 1991; 14(1):1-23.
  43. Lucas, T.; Flick, D., and Raoult-Wack, A. L. Modeling and control of thawing phenomena in solute-impregnated frozen foods. Journal of Food Engineering. 2000; 45(4):209-218.
  44. Mannapperuma, J. D. and Singh, R. P. A computer-aided method for the prediction of properties and freezing/thawing times of foods. Journal of Food Engineering. 1989a; 9(4):275-304.
  45. ---. A computer program package for the simulation of freezing of foods. Technical Innovations in Freezing and Refrigeration of Fruits and Vegetables : Proceedings of the International Conference of Davis, USA; Davis, CA. Paris, France: International Institute of Refrigeration; 1989: 223-228. Science et Technique du FroidISBN: 2903633509.
  46. ---. Prediction of freezing and thawing times of foods using a numerical method based on enthalpy formulation. Journal of Food Science. 1988b; 53(2):626-630.
  47. ---. Thawing of frozen foods in humid air. International Journal of Refrigeration. 1988; 11:173-186.
  48. Mascheroni, R. H. The use of shape factors to model multidimensional heat conduction. Their application to the prediction of thawing times of foods. Proposals for the generation and use of refrigeration in the 21st century : proceedings of the meetings of Commission B2, C2, E2; Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires: International Institute of Refrigeration// International Congress of Refrigeration; 1992: 248-253.
  49. Merritt, J. H. and Nove Scotia. Department of Fisheries. Guidelines for industrial thawing of groundfish in air and in water. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Technical University of Nova Scotia, Department of Fisheries, Province of Nova Scotia. 1993. (Report IDD-109).
  50. Merts, I. A review of methods for thawing meat. Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand (MIRINZ); 1998; ISBN: ISSN-0465-4390.
  51. Merts, I.; Lawson, C. R.; Cotter, S. D., and Lovatt, S. J. Thawing of meat in water and by direct contact with heated plates. Meat Industry Research Institute of New Zealand; 1998; ISBN: 0465-4390.
  52. Miles, C. A.; Morley, M. J., and Randell, M. High power ultrasonic thawing of frozen foods. Journal of Food Engineering. 1999; 39(2):151-159.
  53. Mussa, D. M. and LeBail, A. High pressure thawing of fish: evaluation of the process impact on listeria innocua. 2000 IFT Annual Meeting; Dallas, Texas. Institute of Food Technologists; 2000: 75-7.
  54. Myung, S. O. Effect of thawing methods and storage periods on the quality of frozen cooked rice. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 1998; 3(3):234-240.
  55. Ohlsson, T. Food industry applications of microwave and high frequency heating. Food Engineering News. 1983; Food Industry Trends: 1,3-6.
  56. ---. Low power microwave thawing of animal foodsZeuthen, P. et al. and European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research, Editor. Thermal Processing and Quality of Foods; Athens. London: Elsevier; 1984: 579-584. EUR (Series). v. 9038).
  57. Ohtsuki, T., inventor. Process for thawing foodstuffs. U.S. Patent 5,034,236. 1991.
  58. Pham, Q. T.; Fleming, A. K., and Willix, J. Thawing of meat blocks in polythene wraps and in cartons. Revue Internationale Du Froid. 1993; 16(3):169-174.
  59. Pham, Q. T. and Lovatt, S. L. Optimisation of refrigeration processes by stochastic methods. Food Australia. 1996; 48(2 (Feb.)):64-69.
  60. Pham, Q. T.; Lowry, P. D.; Fleming, A. K.; Willix, J., and Fitzgerald, C. Temperatures and microbial growth in meat blocks undergoing air thawing. Revue Internationale Du Froid. 1994; 17(4):281-287.
  61. Pound, J. The use of dielectric heating for defrosting processes and book-binding. Fifth International Congress on Electro-Heat; Wiesbaden. Paris: Union Internationale d ' Electrothermie; 1964: 1-5.
  62. Ramos, M.; Sanz, P. D.; Aguirre-Puente, J., and Podado, R. Use of the equivalent volumetric enthalpy variation in non-linear phase-change processes: freezing-zone progression and thawing-time determination. Revue Internationale Du Froid. 1994; 17(6):374-380.
  63. Roberts, J. S.; Balaban, M. O.; Zimmerman, R., and Luzuriaga, D. Design and testing of a prototype ohmic thawing unit. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 1998; 19(2):211-222.
  64. Rosenberg, U. and Bogl, W. Microwave thawing, drying, and baking in the food industry. Food Technology. 1987; 41(6 (June)):85-91.
  65. Rubiolo deReinick, A. C. Average and center temperature vs. time evaluation for freezing and thawing rectangular foods. Journal of Food Engineering. 1996; 30(3/4):299-311.
  66. Salvadori, V. O. and Mascheroni, R. H. Prediction of freezing and thawing times of foods by means of a simplified analytical method. Journal of Food Engineering. 1991; 13(1):67-78.
  67. ---. Thawing time prediction for simple shaped foods using a generalized graphical method. Revue Internationale Du Froid. 1989; 12(4):232-236.
  68. Sanders, H. R. A computer programme for the numerical calculation of heating and cooling processes in blocks of fish. Connell, J. J., Editor. Advances in Fish Science and Technology. Farnham, England: Fishing News Books Ltd.; 1979; pp. 263-272.
  69. ---. Electrical resistance thawing of fish. Fifth International Congress on Electro-Heat; Wiesbaden. Paris: Union Internationale d'Electrothermie; 1964: pages 1-5.
  70. Schwartzberg, H. G. Effective heat capacities for the freezing and thawing of food. Journal of Food Science. 1976; 41:152-156.
  71. Sheen, S. and Hayakawa, K. Finite difference analysis for the freezing or thawing of an irregular food with volumetric changeSpiess, W. E. L. and Schubert, H., Editors. International Congress on Engineering and Food (Fifth); Cologne, Germany. London: Elsevier; 1990: 426-441. v. Vol. 2 title- Engineering and Food: Preservation Processes and Related Techniques). ISBN: (ISBN 1851664556).
  72. ---. Parametric analysis for thawing frozen spheroidal (prolate and oblate) or finitely cylindrical food. Journal of Food Science. 1992; 57(1):236-240, 248.
  73. Skaar, G. R.; Gust, J. I.; Gundlach, L. C.; O'Brien, D. F.; Fischer, K. F., and Oscar Mayer Foods Corporation, inventors. Apparatus and method for defrosting frozen proteinaceous food blocks. USA Patent US 5 401 520. 1995.
  74. Srinivasan, S.; Xiong, Y. L., and Blanchard, S. P. Effects of freezing and thawing methods and storage time on thermal properties of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1997; 75(1):37-44.
  75. Succar, J. and Hayakawa, K. Empirical formulae for predicting thermal physical properties of food at freezing or defrosting temperatures. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Und Technologie. 1983; 16(6):326-331.
  76. Sweat, Vincent E.; Haugh, C. G., and Stadelman, J. Thermal conductivity of chicken meat at temperatures between -75 and 20°C. Journal of Food Science. 1973; 38:158-160.
  77. Tanaka, T.; Nagasake, T., and Takahashi, K. Thawing of frozen dressed tuna by microwave heating. Nihon Reit-o Ky-Okai Ronbunsh-u. 1984a; 1(2):59-62.
  78. Tanaka.T.; Nishiwaki, K.; Kakuda, K., and Tomimatsu, T. Thawing of frozen tuna meat. Aspect on meat colour and contraction. Nihon Reit-o Ky-Okai Ronbunsh-u. 1984b; 1(2):71-82.
  79. Taoukis, P.; Davis, E. A.; Davis, H. T.; Gordon, J., and Talmon, Y. Mathematical modeling of microwave thawing by the modified isotherm migration method. Journal of Food Science. 1987; 52(2):455-463.
  80. United States. Office of the Federal Register. Code of Federal Regulations: Current good manufacturing practice in manufacturing, packing, or holding human food. 2002 Apr 1; Title 21, Part 110.
  81. Veerkamp, C. H. Engineering parameters for freezing and thawing equipment. Zeuthen, P. et al., Editor. Thermal Processing and Quality of Foods. London: Elsevier Applied Science Publications; 1984; pp. 802-806.
  82. Virtanen, A. J.; Goedeken, D. L., and Tong, C. H. Microwave assisted thawing of model frozen foods using feed-back temperature control and surface cooling. Journal of Food Science. 1997; 62(1):150-154.
  83. Zhao, Y.; Flores, R. A., and Olson, D. G. High hydrostatic pressure effects on rapid thawing of frozen beef. Journal of Food Science. 1998; 63(2):272-275.
  84. Zhao, Y.; Kolbe, E., and Flugstad, B. A method to characterize electrode corrosion during ohmic heating. Journal of Food Process Engineering. 1999; 22:81-89.

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